On the outside wall of the monastery stone kitchen, constructed in the 15th century by the eminent Russian architect V.D. Yermolin, there was an icon, "Our Lady of Smolensk", carved in stone. When in 1730 a monk whose arms had been twisted by rheumatism was ardently praying in front of it, a miracle took place — he was cured. In honour of this miraculous healing the Smolenskaya Church was erected on the kitchen site by Empress Elizabeth's order in 1746–8. The construction was sponsored by Duke Razumovsky. The richly decorated miracle-working icon stood in the gilded carved iconostasis right of the Royal Gate.
In 1920–30 the iconostasis was lost. Instead an iconostasis from a destroyed Moscow church was installed here in 1956. The iconostasis was designed by architect Uhtomsky. It's contemporary to the church and of the same style.
The Smolenskaya Church has no columns inside and all its inner space is open up to the dome. Murals were painted here in the 19th century. At present the miracle-working icon "Our Lady of Smolensk" is at the local museum. A plaster copy of it (bigger in size) is in the altar recess outside the church. The grave of Nicholas, a Petersburg Metropolitan, is in the church crypt.